The term "Cancer" represents a large number of diseases described by a cellular failure. Healthy cells planned to "know what to do, why to do, and when to do." Cancerous cells do not have this encoding and therefore grow and reproduce out of control. They also serve no physiological and biological functions.
These cells have now labeled a neoplasm. This neoplasmic material often forms a clattering of cells known as a tumor.
The tumor may be benign (noncancerous) Tumors or Malignant (cancerous) Tumors. Benign Tumors are enclosed in a fibrous shell or capsule and take up space. They have no concern if they interfere with nearby tissues or vessels or impede the body's role. Malignant Tumors Not usually enclosed – metastasis. They invade and emit claw-like protrusions that disturb the RNA and DNA of normal cells. These cancerous cells act like a virus.
1 Exposure to Cancer-causing agents
2. Medical Factors
- a. Cellular Mutations
- b. Genetics & Hormone exposure
- The virus creates an adaptable environment
- Social and Psychological Factors
- Occupation and Environment Factors
- Food Chemicals
Types of Cancer
In sarcoma, cancer starts in tissues of bone or muscle. Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are the main categories of sarcoma. Tissue sarcomas can grow in soft tissues like muscle, fat, nerves, leathery tissues, blood veins, or deep skin tissues. In Carcinoma, cancer starts in cells that make up the skin or organs, such as the liver, lung, and kidneys. Like other kinds of cancer, carcinomas are abnormal cells that multiply out of control. They can translocate to other parts of the body, but not always.
In lymphoma cancer, there are two or more groups of lymph bulges on the same flank of the diaphragm. For example, underarm and neck area nodes might include in it but not the mixture of underarm and groin nodes. In Leukemia cancer, the body's capability to make healthy blood cells harmed. It occurs in the soft center of various bones like the marrow of bones. It is the place where new blood cells produce.
Types based on Body Organs
- Lung Cancer
- Breast Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Skin Cancer
- Testicle Cancer
- Ovarian Cancer
- Rectum Cancer
- Uterine Cancer
In this article, we will thoroughly study breast cancer, which only occurs in women.
Its awareness month started on 1st October and ended on 31st October. Once in a year is an international health movement planned by significant breast cancer assistance every year in the month of October to raise awareness of this disease and raise funds for study into its cause, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and therapy. The movement also deals with the information and support to those exaggerated by breast cancer.
Breast cancer defines as a disease in which cells in the breast grow without any multiplying system. Breast cancer cans occur in different locations of the breast. The breast of women makes up of three main parts: ducts, lobules, and connective tissue. Milk produces in glands called lobules, while the vents are tubes that transfer milk to the nipple. A fibrous and fatty tissue called connective tissue surrounds and grips everything together. Most breast cancers occur in the ducts or lobules.
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
- pain in the breast or armpits that does not reduce with the monthly cycle
- pitting of the outer skin of the breast, similar to the external surface like an orange
- a rash around or nearby one of the nipples
- bloody discharge from a nipple,
- a recessed or inverted nipple
- changes to the skin appearance of the skin on your breasts
- inflammation or swelling under your arm
Types of Breast Cancer
There are two basic types, i.e., Invasive ductal Carcinoma and Invasive lobular Carcinoma. In the first one, the cells grow at the outer side of ducts and into other breast parts. These cancer cells are not localized and can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body, in 2nd one cancer cells spread from the lobules to breast tissues nearby. These invasive cancer cells are also nonlocal and spread to other parts of the body. Ductal Carcinoma is a breast disease that may cause breast cancer.
Stages of Cancer
Human Cancer is categorized from stage 0 to stage 4. There's no cancer at step 0—only malfunctioning cells with the possibility to become cancer. The cells are restricted to within the ducts and have not attacked surrounding tissues. This stage also names Carcinoma in situ. At step one, cancer is small and only localized in one area, also called early-stage cancer. At this stage, the tumor is a maximum size of 2 centimeters across. It has not exaggerated any lymph nodes or a small number of cancer cells in the lymph bulges. At stage two, tumors are more significant than 2 cm, and it has started to relocate to nearby cells, or is 2–5 cm across and has not migrated to the lymph bulges. At this stage, cancer is more extensive and has grown into nearby tissues or cells.
At stage 3, the cancer is greater than 5 centimeters, and it has spread to several tissues, and nearby cells and nodes are formed and relocate to other parts of the body. At stage four, cancerous cells have spread to other parts of the body. It's also called progressive or metastatic cancer. Cancer has transferred to other distant organs, most often the bone marrow, brain, liver, or lungs.
Treatment of Cancer
There are three standard treatments of cancer, i.e., radiation therapy, surgery, and chemotherapy. In radiation therapy, doctors use beams of penetrating energy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy usually uses X-rays, but protons or other types of rays can also change the DNA structure of cancerous cells. After interaction with these beams, the autolysis of these cells has occurred. In surgery, the body's part where the concentration of these cells presents removes using surgery tools. In chemotherapy, drugs and medicines had used to kill cancerous cells by the doctors.